The Head of the IWTA
Great Grandmaster Leung Ting – the "closed door student" of the late Great Grand Master Yip Man
Great Grandmaster Leung Ting is the founder and head of the Leung Ting WingTsun system. As the last student of the famous Yip Man, the last overall Grandmaster of the Wing Tsun family, he learned the complex theory of WingTsun from his teacher. It is thanks to his outstanding talent as a martial artist and his incomparable commitment to the spread of Wing Tsun that the Yip Man style is now one of the world's most popular martial arts.
- The start of a great career as martial artist
- Becoming Grandmaster Yip Man’s "Closed-door" student
- The "successor event"
- An excursion into the film world
- World-wide WingTsun Kingdom
- Articles of GGM Leung Ting
The start of a great career as martial artist
The ambitious child
Leung Ting's past story, like his present life, is colourful. It was said that he became ambitious ever since he was four or five years old. At that time he loved drawing – with a piece of chalk in hand, he could draw a warship large enough to cover the whole wall of his house, over-loaded with aeroplanes, guns, large chimneys, etc., for the trouble of his parents to rub them off!
In his childhood, he was weak, though active. He would never sit quiet on his chair. He was a known troublesome boy in school, though he was not bad in his academic attainment.
"Few teachers liked me," Leung Ting recalled, "and big boys in the class often bullied me, I could not fight them over, and after all, teachers always punished me for the fight".
Prejudice and misunderstanding against him made him feel that he was always unfairly treated. That feeling resulted in his love for learning martial arts. He was determined to become a gallant-knight, a hero, who "fought bad people on his way and helped keeping justice". Dramatic persons in famous kungfu movies became Leung Ting's idols. But the one he most adored is the Monkey King, the imaginated character of the supernatural novel "Adventures of The Monkey". What Leung Ting admired of the Monkey King are its naughtiness, its skills as being shown in the episode "Making a mess of the Heavenly Palace", and its faith in his master, and the respect and protection it offers to him besides its ability to impersonate seventy-two different figures.
Leung Ting's boyhood, however, came to an end very soon as his days of play and fight passed away. He did not have a chance of learning martial arts from a kungfu master, not until he was thirteen.
Helped his friend in a street fight
One night Leung Ting, his friend and a cousin of his friend were having a walk in a street. The cousin of his friend got into trouble with a gang of youngsters, who, taking advantage of their numbers, attacked him altogether. Leung Ting could not allow so many people to bully one. With an angry shout, he threw himself over the twenty or so outlaws!
He regretted afterwards for having done so, he felt he was a fool to fight these youngsters, especially when his two friends had already sneaked away while he was busy fighting those people. However the incident was a meaningful experience for him, if he was determined to become an instructor of the Wing Tsun Style.
Leung Ting had two maternal uncles, both were trained in Wing Tsun Kungfu and were famous for their fighting records. Leung Ting had all the time been requesting his uncles to teach him kungfu. However, Leung Ting’s father thought the boy was so naughty that he should not receive tuition in martial arts.
A hard working student of Wing Tsun
It was Cheng Fook, one of Leung Ting’s uncles, who took another view of the boy after taking care of his wounds. He thought that a boy’s characters could not be changed, whether he was taught kungfu or not. So, he would rather teach him some skills of self-defence than to allow him to be bullied. With the approval of Leung Ting’s mother, Chen Fook sent the boy to a gymnasium of a Wing Tsun instructor who was the eldest headstudent of Grandmaster Yip Man.
For six years Leung Ting worked hard in learning kungfu everyday. He was then eighteen, and helped his uncle Cheng Pak, who was also his elder kungfu brother, to set up a school, and became his assistant.
Over-indulgence in learning kungfu had affected Leung Ting’s academic performance – he failed in the School Certificate Examination by being short of only one subject. He had the thought of ceasing his own schooling, if not for the cold sneer of one of his younger kungfu brothers. Being insulted, Leung Ting determined to read hard for one more year, and the next year he obtained brilliant results to become enrolled in Baptist College. Then he received news that his uncle Cheng Pak had already closed his gymnasium.
To become a school teacher of kungfu instructor?
During the first year in the Baptist College, Leung Ting was not hard-pressed with school work. He had been thinking of having a part-time job as an evening school teacher, only to find out the pay for this kind of job was miserably low. At this moment one of his younger kungfu brothers suggested to him that he should give martial art tuition to a handful of students and get some tuition fees from each of them in return. Leung Ting accepted his younger kungfu brother’s proposal. This was a turning point in his career. For, in less than one month’s time, his kungfu brothers had attracted more than ten people to become Leung Ting’s students. In four month’s time, Leung Ting had enrolled a large class of students. He was then in a position to set up his own gymnasium. His gymnasium, however, was shabby enough – some pieces of tin over the roof of one of his father’s buildings. Anyway, Leung Ting was proud to say, "I didn’t use a cent of my father’s. The whole roof-top 'training hall' was built by myself and several of my students!"
Becoming Grandmaster Yip Man’s "Closed-door" student
By an opportunate chance, Leung Ting was introduced by Kwok Keung, his second elder kungfu brother, to Yip Man the Great Grandmaster and recognised successor of Wing Tsun Style. Not long before that time, Grandmaster Yip Man had for a period been hospitalized for treatment of stomach ache. Returning from hospital, Grandmaster Yip determined to retire from the management of his gymnasium and teaching of kungfu. In Chinese tradition of kungfu, that was to say, Yip Man had already "Closed his Door"! Yip never expected that he would have met the teenager Leung Ting, being fond of him, be willing to accept him as his last disciple and give him personal tuition of the most advanced techniques, being dreamt for by most of the other direct disciples during their lifetime, could hardly be revealed by this old man!
The first Wing Tsun class in college
In the winter of 1968, Leung Ting opened a Wing Tsun class in the Baptist College – the first Chinese martial art class to be run in a post-secondary institute in Hong Kong. Before this, there was never a kungfu class in any academic institute, because martial arts and martial artists were all the time being despised, and kungfu was merely regarded as tricky skills used by street fighters. It was therefore a remarkable event that Leung Tng could open and personally direct a martial art class in an academic institute. To attract students, Leung Ting organised a kungfu performance show, in which he and his favourite disciples took part. The show attracted a large crowd of enthusiasts, among whom some sixty became enrolled. The enrolment soared to over one hundred and twenty the next year. The class was then incorporated into the "Wing Tsun Classmates Society of Baptist College".
The glamorous kungfu show
In December, 1969, Leung Ting held a "Wing Tsun Kungfu Show & Tournament" in the campus of Baptist College. The meanings of this event were three-fold: first, it was the first open demonstration and contest of Wing Tsun Kungfu ever since Grandmaster Yip Man began to promote the Wing Tsun System in Hong Kong. Secondly, though all the contestors in this event were students of Leung Ting, yet their performances were praised and highly rated. Thirdly, it was the only occasion in the life of Grandmaster Yip Man when he attended a kungfu show organised by his own disciples. Soon after that, Leung Ting was appointed Chief Instructor of the kungfu class in the Ving Tsun Athletic Association. As for Yip Man, he was glad to have Leung Ting to succeed him and to have a calm and peaceful retired life.
In May, 1970, the Ving Tsun Athletic Association moved to the new site. Leung Ting took the chance to rent the old premises of the association for setting up his own gymnasium – the "Wing Tsun Leung Ting Martial-Art Gymnasium".
From 1970 to 1971, Leung Ting devoted all his energy to promoting the development of Wing Tsun Kungfu by organising public shows and T.V. shows, accepting press and radio interviews, besides sending his own students to participate in various tournaments. With the help of his younger kungfu brother Cheng Chuen Fun, his own brothers Leung Lap, Leung Koon, Leung Tuen, and some other headstudents, Leung Ting succeeded in setting up Wing Tsun classes in several civic associations and organisations, and indeed had brought the populace to the knowledge of the existence of the Wing Tsun System.
As a result of their publicity work, large crowds of learners flocked to Leung Ting’s classes. The rapid expansion brought to him a side-effect - that many fellow kungfu brothers became to misunderstand him and dislike him more and more.
The "successor event"
Something did eventually happened. At this moment, Leung Ting, besides managing the affairs of his own gymnasiums, was helping two of his friends in publishing an international martial art magazine – The "Real Kung Fu". Leung Ting wrote in several issues of the magazine. Among his essays, one was particularly worth mentioning – "Seeds of the Wing Tsun System," which was also printed in series on the "New Evening Daily," and the "New Martial Art" magazine in Hong Kong and Asia. These caused jealousy and discontent among publishers of two other similar martial art periodicals, who were then prepared to take revenge actions against Leung Ting.
In the Autumns of 1976 while Leung Ting was having a visit to his branch gymnasiums in Europe, he received a letter from the Rediffusion Television of Hong Kong inviting him to organize a martial art programme. On the one hand, Leung Ting was promoting publicity for the TV programme, and on the other hand, he decided to take "Real Kung Fu" as the title of the programme. An editor of an amusement and entertainment publication had an interview with Leung Ting, in which Leung Ting forgot to clarify his own position. The next day news about Leung Ting came over the front cover of a newspaper. Worse still, he was crowned with the title of the "Leader of the whole Wing Tsun Style".
It is not unusual to see wrong informations in newspapers, which are usually corrected on the next issue. But wrong information about Leung Ting was at that moment particularly irritant to fellow kungfu instructors of the Wing Tsun style.
This was certainly the best chance for revenge! Instigated by two jealous publishers, the next day, several newspapers disclosed news of the "Successor Event" on the front pages, and few people noticed the "correction notice" on the newspaper that first disclosed news of Leung Ting.
This was only the prelude. The climax of the incident came when a "Press Conference on the Successor Event" was scheduled to be held by a group of angry protestors and their invited kungfu aides, who meant to publicize the mistakes of Leung Ting.
But one day before this conference, Leung Ting, with the help of the TV station and a newspaper editior, the one who felt sorry for giving Leung Ting trouble, rushed to hold a "Press Conference to clarify the successor event", in which Leung Ting pointed out that the whole thing was not just a planned plot to blur his name, but that those who stood out against him were merely instigated to do so by some people who actually planned to take over his TV programme for themselves. Leung Ting further pointed out to me that he had "learnt a lesson" from this incident, that he had seen the real face of the so-called "respectable martial art seniors", and that he himself had been too frank towards others.
An excursion into the film world
Entered the movie circle
The "Successor Event" had finally brought Leung Ting more honour than insult, as reflected in the fact that the "Real Kung Fu" TV programme, in which a large number of kungfu masters, including numbers of two big martial-art general associations appeared to support it, became a favourite item. As a side-effect of this, the number of students attending his gymnasiums grew unexpectedly fast.
Something more unexpected was still to come. Shortly after the event, he was picked up by Chang Chieh, the famous director of martials art films of the Shaw Brothers Studio,
In the Summer of 19877, Chang Chieh, in a press conference, with straightforward and simple words, introduced Leung Ting to the public as the new kungfu action director of his company.
That is how miracularly Leung Ting jumped from the martial art circle to the movie world.
Return to the gymnasiums
Though being successful in the movie circle, Leung Ting was all the time worried about his own ability for his new job, especially when he realized the complicated inter-personal relations in the movie circle. The next year, when he had finished directing the sixth kungfu film, he returned to his own gymnasium. One month later, he had a tour of two months to Europe.
Knowing his own real interest
Having a view of the beautiful scenery of Europe and having seen his students who were growing in great numbers, Leung Ting finally fond out where his real interest lies. After his return to Hong Kong, he re-arranged his manuscripts on martial arts, and put them into print at the end of 1978, which became the first volumous book on a selected Chinese kungfu style in English edition, with the title "Wing Tsun Kuen".
Head of the world's largest WingTsun Martial Arts Organisation
The "Wing Tsun Kuen" not only brought him a fortune, but also made him well known to the world. Thousands of adorers wrote to him, many came to him from overseas to request for tuitions. The International Wing Tsun Leung Martial-Art Association prospered as rapidly as the sales of the "Wing Tsun Kuen". Branches grew from the original seven countries of West Germany, Denmark, New Zealand, Great Britain, Austria, Yugoslavia, and Switzerland to some more countries – Italy, Greece, the Philippines, USA, Spain and Poland. Recently, Egypt, Sweden, South Africa, and Finland are also included in his "Wing Tsun
It is not known how many of his students exist in other countries. In all these countries, there are different political thoughts, different habits of life, different races of people, and different languages. But when all these people come into the gymnasiums or brand gymnasiums of the IWTA, they all do the same thing, that is to bow first to the image of Yip Man the late Grandmaster, then to the photo of Sifu Leung Ting, the Grandmaster of their kungfu system, before paying their respect to their own masters or kungfu instructors, as commensurate to the tradition of Chinese rites. In this way, Leung Ting is not only teaching kungfu, but also teaching Chinese culture.
"Valuable Treasures and Disloyal Students"
In an extensive interview, the head of the international WingTsun family explains why he has been voluntarily holding private tutorials at the Martial Arts Academy in Langenzell Castle in addition to his normal teaching activities.
WTW: I am very pleased to have the opportunity to ask you a few questions again. Would you please explain the difference between seminars for students and the new tutorials for instructors.
GGM Leung Ting: The instructor tutorials are not really a completely new thing. It all began in the mid-90s in Hong Kong, when a 1st TG student asked me for a few private lessons. So as not to disappoint him, I promised him a few lessons in my home. But immediately the other instructors also wanted to take part in this instruction. On one evening each week I started a short instructors class at the Hong Kong headquarters, so that every instructor would have the same opportunity to learn advanced techniques from me. This means that nobody can claim to be the only one who has learned so-called secret or missing techniques from me. After 12 years this was the first time I gave regular classes in Hong Kong again. While teaching the instructor class I soon found that the individual instructors sometimes had different views concerning the details of our concepts and techniques. An instructor might be very good at hitting his Chi-Sau partner with a throat cutting hand, but helpless when it came to countering a Pak-Sau with thrusting punch in which his partner was specialised. Finally I came to the view that the higher the grades of the instructors, the greater the number of incorrect movements.
WTW: How can that be? Are they not specifically examined for every Technician grade or higher?
GGM Leung Ting: Yes, of course. But first I must separate your question into two parts. Firstly, it is typical of WT that we do not use prescribed movements when fighting. When examining a candidate it is therefore not possible to "force" him to react in a certain way, or to "check" the response that the examiner wishes to see.
And so this (ingenious) characteristic of WT has the disadvantage that in a large class the teacher does not always notice the weaknesses of every individual student, especially as the student does not point them out himself.
In a large class there might e.g. be several students who previously learned karate or another wing-chun style, still retain fixed views or old habits and may mistakenly think that there is no great difference between certain karate, wing-chun or WT concepts. If you have this opinion it would not matter to you whether I give you a genuine Rolex or a cheap imitation, as they would both look the same to you.
And then there are also students who miss a few lessons and therefore lack the key to understanding for the rest of their WT careers.
Let's take the Siu-Nim-Tau form as an example. Everybody knows that SNT means "little idea", but I ask myself how many students or even instructors really understand the meaning behind it. Do they really know that the Siu-Nim-Tau is taught at different levels of understanding? In several phases? And that it must be repeatedly studied with a different, higher level of understanding and emphasis that corresponds to the grade of the student or instructor?
WTW: Can I interrupt with a question? Does this mean that some techniques in the SNT are not suitable for beginners? Should the instructors refrain from teaching some of its techniques to students, or is the whole SNT in fact not really intended for beginners?
GGM Leung Ting: Well, as you know the SNT is the most basic form in WT. Let me explain it as follows: as a child you may have learned the first few letters of the alphabet in a kindergarten, then you went to a proper school, perhaps a grammar school, and used these letters to write essays and study biology and chemistry, etc. Eventually you become a university student and still use these same letters of the alphabet to do research in nuclear physics. But is a university professor able to explain nuclear physics to the children in a kindergarten? It's just the same in WT: the Siu-Nim-Tau form is constantly relearned in several phases, starting with the simple and gradually going into more detail and depth.
WTW: So the Siu-Nim-Tau is not as simple as one would like to think.
GGM Leung Ting: You're right. Take me for example: before I received private tuition from the late Great Grandmaster Yip Man I believed (as I was already a successful teacher) that my Siu-Nim-Tau was pretty good. And do you know what he said when I showed him my SNT during the first lesson?
WTW: What did he say?
GGM Leung Ting: "Too superfluous".
WTW: What did he mean by that?
GGM Leung Ting: The problem occurs if you try to teach the beginner to use the so-called "soft force" too early. Many beginners then put so much emphasis on this force that they either become rigid or too "relaxed", moving like old people doing their Tai-Chi form in the park.
WTW: What you are saying is that when practicing the SNT one should neither be too soft nor too rigid. But from the very first day our own instructors are always telling us to "free ourselves from our own force".
GGM Leung Ting: Yes, in the first lesson we always teach the beginner to give up his own force, and to make the SNT very "soft". This is necessary, for if the beginner does not understand how important the "soft" force is, he will always misunderstand the word "force" and try to work with his own "primitive" force. In this case he will never have the chance to develop the other force, the "soft" force, which I could call the "elastic" force to make things clearer.
It is like the GENUINE "Peking Duck". This actually has nothing in common with what is served to you as "Peking Duck" in the west. In China we actually only eat the crackly skin of the roasted duck, not the meat itself. If you come to China with your preconceived western idea of what a "Peking Duck" should be like and you are served a genuine Peking Duck, you might even get the idea that the Chinese are trying to cheat you.
WTW: So unless we empty our cup of tea before we change to coffee, the drink will not taste like real coffee.
GGM Leung Ting: That's exactly right. And now to the second question: what did I mean when I said 'the higher the grade, the more mistakes you must inevitably make'? When the instructor was still a student he had his own instructor who corrected his mistakes. As soon as you are an instructor yourself, however, you cannot expect your respectful students to dare tell you: "Sihing or Sifu, I think you are doing that movement incorrectly".
Apart from this, the instructor MUST MAKE MISTAKES INTENTIONALLY when teaching so that the student learns to recognise and exploit gaps when fighting. This INEVITABLY leads to faulty movements and possibly bad habits which take a great deal of effort to eliminate again.
WTW: That makes sense to me. Will you tell us what you will be teaching during the exclusive instructor tutorials?
GGM Leung Ting: I am giving these tutorials because
1. I want to ensure a uniform international standard. During a large seminar for everyone it is not possible to eliminate the detailed mistakes of an instructor, you can only point them out and tell him not to make them in future. But shortly after the seminar he often forgets his good intentions and the mistakes become chronic.
During special, practical instructor seminars, and particularly during the intensive, private instructor tutorials I give throughout the west at my own expense, I have the time to correct each individual personally.
2. During a large seminar for everyone, where there are always large numbers of beginners and different programmes, it would take too much of my available time to teach the most advanced techniques and concepts for instructors and Technicians. The detailed and lengthy explanations would only bore the beginners, who would not understand them. On the other hand, if I take almost all the time teaching basic techniques for beginners I cannot give the instructors attending a large seminar what they expect. The best solution is therefore to hold additional, private tutorials for advanced students and instructors.
I am extremely fortunate to have learned the most advanced techniques and best concepts during personal tuition by the late GGM Yip Man. It is now time to pass this priceless treasure on to our loyal students.
WTW: Speaking about the late Great Grand Master's teaching and the loyalty of students reminds me that I recently heard rumours about your own private lessons from the late GM Yip Man and about an "association" whose leaders, a Dutchman named Sergio I. and a Chinese, Allan F., claim you resp. Grandmaster Kernspecht as their teachers and have practically nominated themselves as your successors.
GGM Leung Ting (surprised): Really? Our successors? Ha, Ha, Ha.
WTW: Yes, there is a certain Sergio I. from Holland, an ex-member of the EWTO, your European representatives, who claims to have learned the complete system from you in Hong Kong in 70 hours of private instruction. He also claims that you told him that in the late 60s you yourself learned all the advanced weaponless techniques from the late GGM Yip Man in only 72 hours.
According to him you then sent him to one of your own deserters in the USA to learn the double-knife techniques as well. He says he has now founded a new association with this fellow, the intention being to suggest that all this is happening with your agreement, or at least with idealistic motives for the good of WingTsun.
GGM Leung Ting: Amazing! Where did you get this crazy story?
The reporter shows him a number of documents. Prof. Leung Ting looks them over briefly but attentively, then returns them to the reporter with a chuckle.
GGM Leung Ting: This is really outrageous, and also pretty stupid. Who would believe something like this?
WTW: I would not have believed it either, but the fellow even printed out all the receipts for the private lessons with you in Hong Kong. This could make some people believe that this is not complete nonsense.
GGM Leung Ting: That's exactly what I meant by "outrageous, and also pretty stupid". Let me point out the weaknesses for you:
1. This fellow claims that he received "more than 70 hours of instruction" from me. Let's look at these so-called "receipts" more carefully. Ok – you are not in a position to check whether the signatures are genuine or to know since when we have no longer been using a certain form of letterheaded paper, but you can certainly add the "receipts" together and establish how many hours of lessons the fellow received. This is the first obvious lie.
(GGM Leung Ting is right. On adding the receipts together the reporter finds the total is only 45 hours).
2. And if he really could have learned everything from me, why would I have afterwards sent him to one of my worst rebels? Doesn't the fact that he had to go to a rebel from my style immediately prove that I did not want to show him the most advanced techniques?
3. And if I had really wanted to teach him everything, why would I not have earned the money myself, rather than secretly sending him to the one rebel whom I despise most? That just doesn't make sense at all!
4. If I really wanted to give somebody support, do you think I would be stupid enough to get together with a disloyal rebel? If there were anything to this story, either I would have to be crazy or the fellow himself is not quite right in the head. What do the psychiatrists call it? Delusions of grandeur! Ha, ha, ha.
5. The funny thing is that I myself don't even know the exact number of hours I spent learning from GGM Yip Man.
How can a young foreigner who was not there when I received instruction from GGM Yip Man know that I learned from him for exactly 72 hours? Let me tell you something: yes, in "Roots of WingTsun" I wrote that GGM Yip Man gave me instruction for a good hour twice every week at the house of my sihing Kwok Keung. What the young man cannot know, however, is that I continued to practice what I had learned afterwards, while GGM Yip Man watched me for hours as he chatted and drank tea with Kwok Keung.
WTW: Did you tell him any of this?
GGM Leung Ting: None of it! We were not together in the tea-house often enough for that. How could he find out so many things about me? Fortunately Kwok Keung is still alive and is our best eye-witness. But apart from that, in the same article and the same book I stated that it was more through my conversations with the late GGM Yip Man in the tea-house that I learned the highest and most advanced theories and techniques than through the nine months of hard, personal partner training with the Great Grand Master.
WTW: That's how I understood it too. But there is something else I don't understand: how did he advance from 2nd technician to his so-called "7th level practician"?
GGM Leung Ting: He awarded it to himself! He didn't need me for that. Just like his partner, the other (Chinese) rebel, who now claims to have the "9th level" or even the "10th level". In fact when he left me his performance just about merited the 6th level. Listen, you can call yourself a "12th level" if you want. Haven't you noticed that all rebels are at least Grand Masters? Ha ha …
WTW: All that sounds pretty ironic. Could you explain what you mean in more detail?
GGM Leung Ting: To be honest, I would have been very happy if I had been able to learn all the techniques from the late GGM Yip Man in only 72 hours. But unfortunately nobody can learn everything in so short a time. If WT is so easy, why do I continue to train and practice myself, and constantly reexamine the essence of the whole system? Why would Keith R. Kernspecht, who is himself a 10th master level and has received private instruction from me for many years, continue to ask me for lessons if there is so little to learn?
WTW: Thank-you for that detailed explanation. Of course you are right. WT is such a highly intelligent martial art. It is easy and quick to learn, but it takes years and then more years to really understand and absorb its concepts and techniques. And without a good teacher who gives you honest, conscientious instruction with constant correction it is very easy to stray from the right path. Do you have anything more to say about your disloyal Dutch Kung Fu grandson Sergio I.?
GGM Leung Ting: Strictly speaking he was not really my direct student and only received a few hours of instruction from me. He has harmed himself more than me. If he had been more patient he could really have learned the whole WingTsun system at some time, sooner or later. And in detail, not just superficially.
When he came to me in Hong Kong he gained my confidence by wanting to learn from me in order to spread WT for me somewhere in Asia. That is why I promised him the 3rd Technician Grade if he trained hard enough to open a school for me in Singapore, Malaysia or even China. To familiarise him with the local conditions and way of life I even took him to China with me as a member of my large team! Later he wanted to open a school in New York, and I even helped him by speaking to an investor in Miami on his behalf.
Now he will no longer be able to fulfil his dreams with me, for I know exactly how much my rebel student has learned. Let him get others to show him incorrect techniques from now on, and regret being cut off from the true path for the rest of his life. I pity him for his stupidity, as the loss is his.
WTW: Yes, he has lost the way to the true techniques forever. But can't he still use your name, create a certain confusion among your students and thereby attract students away from you?
GGM Leung Ting: I am not very concerned about that. Just think: somebody who even goes behind the back of his si-gung and tells untruths in public – can you really rely on him to teach you honestly and conscientiously? I don't think he will be successful this way. The Chinese have a saying: you must reap what you have sown. So let's wait and see. Does that answer your question?
WTW: Yes, to my full satisfaction. Many thanks for taking the trouble to answer our questions.
GGM Leung Ting: My pleasure.